Vietnamese adverbs are one of the most crucial grammar parts when learning Vietnamese, both in spoken and written language. The relationship among verbs, adjectives and adverbs in Vietnamese is extremely strict so you need to understand the knowledge about adverbs in order to communicate confidently with native speakers.
In this article, Jellyfish will provide you with all of the knowledge about adverbs helping you better understand and be able to apply immediately.
1. WHAT IS ADVERB? TYPES OF ADVERBS IN VIETNAMESE
“Trạng từ” (adverb) also known as phó từ (adverb), is one of the most commonly used words in Vietnamese.
1.1 Function of Vietnamese Adverb
In a sentence, along with providing more information about time, space, place,… adverb also has main functions as follow:
- Modifier for verb
Example: Anh ấy nhanh chóng hoàn thành bài thi (He quickly finished the test).
- Modifier for adjective
Example: Đó là một trận đấu cực kỳ tệ hại (It was an extremely bad match).
- Modifier for other adverbs
Example: Anh ấy hoàn thành công việc hoàn toàn tốt (He did the work completely well).
Additionally, some other adverbs also have functions such as:
- Modifier for the whole sentence
Example: Thật không may, chúng tôi bị lỡ chuyến xe bus để về nhà (Unfortunately, we missed the bus to go home).
- Modifier for other words: noun phrase, preposition phrase, pronoun.
Example: Tôi chỉ mua trái cây thôi (I bought only the fruits).
See more: Grammar in Vietnamese
1.2. Types of Adverbs in Vietnamese
There are various similarities between Vietnamese adverbs and English adverbs, when learning Vietnamese, you can apply the knowledge from English. Vietnamese adverbs are divided into 8 types as follows:
- Adverb of degree
Example: Bạn vừa hoàn thành việc này một cách hoàn hảo (You have done this perfectly).
- Adverb of manner
Example: Anh ấy có thể học thuộc rất tốt (He can learn by heart very well).
- Adverb of time
Example: Cô ấy đã gặp anh ta ở quán cà phê vào tuần trước (She met him at a coffee shop last week).
- Adverb of place
Example: Tôi đi xung quanh để khám phá thành phố này (I go around to explore this city).
- Adverb of frequency
Example: Cô ấy luôn luôn đi làm đúng giờ (She always go to work on time).
- Adverbs of quantity
Example: Tôi thích học tiếng Nhật, chủ yếu là để xem những bộ phim tôi thích (I enjoy learning Japanese, mainly to watch the movies that I like).
- Conjunctive adverb
Example: Cô ấy đến và sau đó chúng tôi cùng nhau ăn tối (She came and then we had dinner together).
- Interrogative adverb
Example: Có lẽ anh ấy sẽ không đến (Maybe he won’t come).
2. Summary of commonly used adverbs in daily communication
Since Vietnamese vocabulary is very rich, there are numerous different words that have the same meaning. Therefore, when using adverbs, you need to focus on the meaning and context of the sentence to use correctly.
2.1. Adverbs of degree
Adverbs of degree are used to describe the intensity and showing to what extent the action takes place, these adverbs often stand in front of the adjectives or adverbs more than the verbs.
Adverbs of degree + Other adjectives/adverbs
Here are some adverbs of degree which are commonly used for your reference:
|Adverbs of degree||Examples|
|Tuyệt đối (Absolutely)|
|Hoàn toàn (Completely)|
|Vô cùng (Extremely)|
2.2 Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of manner are frequently used to describe how an action is carried out. Used to answer the questions with “How” in English.
Generally standing in the middle or at the end of a sentence, in case placing in the middle, adverbs of manner regularly stand behind verbs or objects.
Verb + adverb of manner
Here are some adverbs of manner which are commonly used in Vietnamese people’s conversation:
|Adverbs of manner||Examples|
|Cẩn thận (Carefully)|
|Lưu loát (Fluently)|
|Hạnh phúc (Happily)|
|Bất lịch sự (Impolitely)|
|Bất ngờ (Suddenly)|
|Tức giận, Giận dữ (Angrily)|
2.3. Adverbs of time
Adverbs of time are used to describe time, actions happened or have been performed, used to answer the questions with “Khi nào?” (When)
Adverbs of time generally stand at the end or at the beginning of the sentence to emphasize time:
Adverb of time + clause
Clause + Adverb of time
Here are some adverbs of time that you need to use when communicating with native speakers for your reference:
|Adverbs of time||Examples|
|Ngay bây giờ (Now, Right now)|
|Hôm qua (Yesterday)|
|Ngày mai (Tomorrow)|
|Gần đây (Lately, Recently)|
|Cuối cùng (Eventually)|
|Sau đó (Then)|
|Ngay lập tức (At once)|
2.4. Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place are used to describe the place that things happen, and used to answer the questions with “Ở đâu?” (Where)
Normally, each adverb of place has both a fixed meaning and direction.
In a sentence, adverbs of time generally stand in the middle, behind the main verb or the clause it modifies.
Verb/Modified clause + adverb of place
Here are some adverbs of place for your reference:
|Adverbs of place||Examples|
|Ở đây, Đến đây (Here)|
|Ở đó, Đến đó (There)|
|Ở gần đây (Nearby)|
|Mọi nơi (Everywhere)|
|Bất kỳ đâu (Anywhere)|
|Trên lầu, Lên lầu (Upstairs)|
Note: There are a number of prepositions that can play as adverbs of place, such as: in, on, off, around, behind, inside, up, down, over.
Courses for you:
In this first part, you learned the basics of adverbs in Vietnamese, including their definition, usage, and categorization. Let’s go through part 1 with Jellyfish again and then look forward to part 2 of this article!
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