Vietnamese pronouns are difficult for foreigners to learn. If you do not know these Vietnamese pronouns, it will be difficult for you to speak Vietnamese naturally.
To help you understand and use pronouns in Vietnamese, Jellyfish has compiled all the knowledge about common pronouns in the following article, including: Vietnamese Personal pronouns and Demonstrative pronouns. Please take notes so you can go review them later!
- 1. Vietnamese personal pronouns – Vietnamese pronouns
- 2. Demonstrative pronouns in Vietnamese – Vietnamese pronouns
1. Vietnamese personal pronouns – Vietnamese pronouns
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are used to indicate or replace a noun in order to indicate people and things when we do not want to refer directly to them or avoid repeating many of the same words in the sentence.
Personal pronouns in Vietnamese are divided into 3 types:
- First Person: Refers to the speaker himself (equivalent to I, We in English)
- Second Person: Used to refer to the person who has a direct conversation with you (You in English)
- Third Person: Used to refer to people who are not involved in the conversation but are mentioned in the conversation (equivalent to She, He, It in English)
Note: Vietnamese pronouns can also be used as a subject or object in a sentence.
See more: Vietnamese Grammar
1.1. First Person (I, we) – Vietnamese personal pronouns
Vietnamese personal pronouns in the first person are words which like the word “I, We” in English. However, Vietnamese has many different personal pronouns in the first person. Based on age, gender as well as the relationship between the speakers and listeners, you can choose the most accurate and appropriate personal pronouns.
You can refer to the table of some commonly used personal pronouns below:
|Tôi (in a polite way)||Chúng tôi, Bọn tôi|
|Tao (often used when talking to close friends)||Chúng tao, Bọn tao, Tụi tao|
|Tớ, Mình (when you are talking to normal friends)||Chúng tớ, Chúng mình, Tụi mình|
|Tui (Southern dialect)||Bọn tui, Tụi tui|
|Cháu/ con (when you talk to someone from the previous generation)||Chúng cháu, Chúng con, Bọn con|
|Em (when you’re a little younger than the listener)||Bọn em, Chúng em|
|Anh (when you are male and slightly older than the listener)||Bọn anh, Tụi anh|
|Chị (when you are female and slightly older than the listener)||Bọn chị, Tụi chị|
|Cô (when you’re female and the same age as the listener’s parents)||Bọn cô, Tụi cô|
|Chú (when you’re male and the same age as the listener’s parents)||Bọn chú, Tụi chú|
- Cháu yêu bà (I love you) : When you talk to your grandmother.
- Anh yêu em (I love you): When you are male, talk to your lover.
1.2. Second Person (You) – Vietnamese personal pronouns
Similar to the first person, the second person also has a lot of personal pronouns that you can use to suit the situation in which the conversation takes place. Here are some common second person pronouns used by native speakers:
|Cậu, Bạn (someone who is the same as your age)||Các cậu, Các bạn|
|Mày (when you are talking to close friends)||Chúng mày, Bọn mày, Tụi mày|
|Ông (someone who is male and the same age as your grandfather)||Các ông|
|Bà (someone who is male and the same age as your grandmother)||Các bà|
|Cô, Dì (when the opposite person is a woman and is a parent’s sister or someone who is the same as your parents’ age)||Các cô, Các dì|
|Chú ( your parents’ younger brother or someone is male and the same as your parents’ age)||Các chú|
|Em (when the opposite person is younger than you)||Bọn em, Các em|
|Chị (when the opposite person is female and older than you)||Các chị, Bọn chị, Tụi chị|
|Anh ((when the opposite person is male and older than you)||Các anh, Bọn anh, Tụi anh|
- Cậu cho tớ mượn cục tẩy này nhé? (When the listener is the same as your age)
- Chị chở em đi chơi nhé ạ? (When the listener is female and older than you)
- Cháu yêu bà (When you talk to your grandmother)
1.3. Third Person (She, He, They,…) – Vietnamese Pronouns
Third person pronouns are used to refer to people who are not involved in communication but are mentioned in the communication. Here are some third person Vietnamese pronouns that are used frequently in communication:
|Số ít||Số nhiều|
|Anh ấy, Anh kia (When the person mentioned is male and older than you)||Các anh ấy, Các anh kia|
|Cô ấy, Cô kia (When the person mentioned is male and the same age as your father)||Các cô ấy, Các cô kia|
|Chú ấy, Chú kia (When the person mentioned is male and are the same as older your grandmother’s age)||Các chú ấy, Các chú kia|
|Ông ấy, Ông kia (When the person mentioned is male and are the same as older your grandmother’s age)||Các ông ấy, Các ông kia|
|Bà ấy, Bà kia (When the person mentioned is female and are the same as older your grandmother’s age)||Các bà ấy, Các bà kia|
|Chị ấy, Chị kia (When the person mentioned is female and older than you)||Các chị ấy, Các chị kia|
|Nó (When the person mentioned is unknown)||Họ, Bọn họ, Bọn nó, Chúng nó|
- Tôi yêu cô ấy. Cô ấy rất xinh đẹp và tốt bụng (I love her. She is very beautiful and kind)
- Tôi ghét bọn nó. Bọn nó rất xấu tính (I hate them. They are very bad).
Xem thêm: How many tones in Vietnamese?
2. Demonstrative pronouns in Vietnamese – Vietnamese pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that are used to replace a noun that can be understood from the context of a sentence. Usually, demonstrative pronouns always come before nouns to make them more specific. Learn more about them in the next section.
2.1. Đây/ Này (This / These)
“ Đây/ Này” are common demonstrative pronouns which used to refer to things near the speaker or both the speaker and the listener.
These Vietnamese pronouns are used like the word “This” in English to modify a person or thing with the following structure:
- Đây là + danh từ (This is + noun)
- Danh từ + này (This noun)
- Đây là con mèo của tôi (This is my cat)
- Quyển sách này là của tôi ( This book belongs to me)
For plural nouns, demonstrative pronouns are used like “These” in English, you can apply the following structure:
- Đây là những + danh từ số nhiều (These are + plural noun)
- Những + danh từ số nhiều (These + plural noun)
- Đây là những quả cam mẹ tôi vừa mua (These are the oranges my mom bought)
- Những con chó này là của cô ấy (These dogs belong to her)
2.2. Đấy/ Đó/ Kia (That / Those)
Vietnamese people often use the above 3 demonstrative pronouns to refer to things that are far away from the speaker or both the speaker and the listener.
If it is a singular noun, native speakers often use demonstrative pronouns such as the word “That” in English with the structure:
- Đấy/ Đó/ Kia là + danh từ (That is + noun)
- Danh từ + đấy/ đó/ kia (That noun)
- Đó là quả bóng rổ của em trai tôi (That is my brother’s basketball ball)
- Ngôi nhà kia là nhà của ông bà tôi (That house is my grandparents’)
If it is a plural noun, Vietnamese demonstrative pronouns have the same function as the word “Those” in English, you can apply the structure:
- Đấy/ Đó/ Kia là những + danh từ số nhiều (Those are + plural noun)
- Danh từ số nhiều + đấy/ đó/ kia là (Those + plural noun)
- Đó là những đồ chơi mà con tôi rất thích (Those are the toys that my daughter loves)
- Những học sinh kia là học sinh cấp 2 (Those students are secondary school students)
The above article has summarized the most important knowledge and notes about pronouns in Vietnamese. To be able to communicate with Vietnamese people more easily, memorizing Vietnamese pronouns is essential. Although this is a slightly difficult part of Vietnamese grammar, the harder you practice, the more fluently you can use it.
For more information about the Vietnamese Language Program for foreigners, please contact us at the following information:
Jellyfish Education Vietnam – Hotline: 0961.275.006